Small cells are the low power wireless access point that operates in licensed and unlicensed spectrum. Over the past 2-3 years, the demand of small cell is increasing rapidly as traffic is not coming down and the demand curve is getting far up. It has found that 60%-70% of mobile data is being consumed in home or enterprises .A common feature in this approach, of using small cells is that they are centrally managed by mobile network operators. One of the other main causes of increased demand of small cells is that not much capital investment is needed for this network than that for a macro cell.
Small Cells are ideally suited to help deliver 5G connections where they are needed most. They can be leveraged to even address the most crowded environments like stadiums and train stations, improving economics for mobile operators and therefore opening the door for more affordable data plans. Backhaul is needed to connect the small cells to the core network, internet and other services. For in-building use, existing broadband internet can be used.
Many different wireless and wired technologies have been proposed as solutions and it is agreed that a 'toolbox' of these will be needed to address a range of deployment scenarios. The backhaul solution is influenced by a number of factors including the operator's original motivation to deploy small cells which could be for targeted capacity indoor or outdoor coverage.Because of the significant variation that is expected when it comes to deployment and application of small cells, a high degree of automation needs to be present when it comes to provisioning.